In class I distributed several handouts: Reminder, Complex Numbers and AC Circuits, Input and Output Impedance and Thevenin's Theorem, Operational Amplifiers (Diefenderfer), Feedback Operational Amplifiers (Horowitz & Hill) (in two parts). Read the notes on Complex Numbers and AC Circuits and the notes on Op Amps (from the text by Diefenderfer) before coming to class on Thursday, February 15.
Some of you have had trouble downloading the statmech program. Jessica Willard pointed out a fix, which I've added to the bottom of the page. Let me know if you have problems.
I should point out that problem T4A.2 on next week's homework is optional, in case you feel the need for additional challenge. I'll give you extra credit if you do it and get it right.
I've added the homework that will be due next Monday to the list. It's a bit longer and more difficult than the last, so start it early. In addition, I think it's a good idea that you learn to read scientific papers early on in your career. Pursuant to that, I've added an American Journal of Physics paper that you should read which I hope will complement what we're doing in class. The paper has a problem embedded in it that you should answer. Next week I'll probably ask you another problem from that paper. The link to the HTML version is in the homework table below, and at the top of the HTML version of the paper is a link you can use to download a PDF version. If you want a paper copy of the article and you have trouble printing it out, let me know and I'll print one out for you.
I can't emphasize enough the importance of working the homework. You must work the problems, think about the results, and understand any mistakes you've made if you wish to attain the type of understanding of the subject required of a working physicist. I (or a grader) will grade the problems, and I'll hand out solutions. I encourage you to read the solutions and understand any mistakes. If it doesn't make sense, ask me about it right away---don't wait until right before an exam.
The College requires that all written work for a course except for a final be submitted by 5 pm on the last day of classes. The physics department takes this deadline seriously. After that day/time, no homework or lab reports will be accepted, nor will I conduct exit interviews for labs.
Week | Notes | Hmwk | Lab | |
1. January 29 | Thermal Physics Jan 29: Administrative stuff / Intro / Reversible and Irreversible Processes (T1) Jan 31: Temperature (T1) Feb 1: Ideal Gases (T2) Feb 2: Ideal Gases (T2) / Gas Processes (T3) |
From Moore: T1S.6, T1S.7, T1S.9, T2S.1, T2S.6, T2A.1, T3S.4, T3S.7, T3R.2 | Lab 1: Ideal Gas Thermometry | EI |
2. February 5 | Thermal Physics Feb 5: Macrostates and Microstates (T4) Feb 7: More on Counting states (T4), Entropy (T5) Feb 8: Entropy (T5) Feb 9: Second Law (T6) |
From Moore: T4S.6, T4R.1, T4A.2 (optional challenge problem), T5S.8, T5R.1, T5R.2, T6S.4, T6R.1, T6R.2, T6A.1, Read the paper and work Problem 3 from The art of statistical mechanics: Looking at microscopic spectra and seeing macroscopic phenomena (American Journal of Physics, Vol. 67, No. 12, pp. 1123) | Lab 2: Latent heat of liquid nitrogen | Formal |
3. February 12 | Thermal Physics Feb 12: Boltzmann factor and related issues Feb 14: Boltzmann factor and related issues Feb 15: Circuits, Complex Numbers, Op Amps (Hilborn) Feb 16: Calculating entropy changes |
T6A.2, T7S.10,T7S.11, T7R.2, T7A.1, three extra problems distributed in class | Lab 3: Measurement of Cp/Cv | EI |
4. February 19 | Feb 19: Entropy changes/Heat engines (T8) Feb 21: More on Op Amps (Hilborn) Feb 22: Carnot cycle (T9) Feb 23: Heat engines and a little on random walks |
T8S.18, T8S.19, T8R.2, T8A.1, T9R.1, T9A.1, BONUS problem: demonstrate, by analyzing each stage of the four-stage cycle (as we did in class for the carnot cycle) that the efficiency of the stirling cycle engine is the same as that of the carnot cycle engine. | Lab 4: Operational amplifiers | EI |
5. February 26 | Feb 26: More on random walks Feb 28: More on op amps (Hilborn) Feb 28: Exam #1, 7 pm Mar 1: Wrap up op amps (Hilborn) Mar 2: Start optics--reflection, refraction, Snell's law |
no homework | Operational amplifiers | EI |
6. March 5 | Mar 5: total internal reflection, chromatic dispersion, start Fermat's principle Mar 7: Fermat's principle, real and virtual images, flat mirrors Mar 8: Mirrors Mar 9: Spherical Mirrors |
HRW Chap 34: 49,51,56,57; Chap 35: 3,8,11 | Operational amplifiers | EI |
7. March 12 | Mar 12: finish spherical mirrors, start refracting surfaces Mar 14: refracting surfaces; Guest lecturer: Andrew Foss Mar 15: thin lenses; Guest lecturer: Lindsay Clarke Mar 16: optical instruments and some more lens stuff |
HRW Chap 35: 13,15,20,26,29,31,34,35,37 | Lab 5: Operational amplifiers | Formal |
March 17-25 | Spring Break! | nada | woo-hoo! | |
8. March 26 |
Transverse waves on a string Mar 26: Preview of the rest of the course. Overview on waves. Transverse waves on a string: derivation of the wave equation in the small slopes approximation. A solution of the wave equation. Mar 28: A solution the wave equation and its qualitative features. Mar 29: General solution to the wave equation. Kinematics of waves. Start on sinusoidal waves. Mar 30: Characteristics of sinusoidal waves. Small slope approximation for sinusoidal waves. How to obtain the + and - waves from initial conditions. |
HR Chap 17, #22,23,30,31, and two extra problems distributed in class. | Lab 6: Mirrors | EI |
9. April 2 |
Superposition and Fourier analysis Apr 2: Superposition of two out-of-phase waves (and discussion of phasors). Standing waves. Statement of Fourier's theorem. Apr 4: How to calculate the coefficients in the Fourier expansion. Apr 5: Vector space interpretation of Fourier series. Example: Square wave. Some general features of Fourier coefficients. Apr 6: General features of Fourier coefficients. Power spectrum. Example: Periodic pulse. |
Problem set distributed in class. (Problems 3,4, and 5, which use the Fourier transform, are rolled over to next week.) | Lab 7: Lenses | EI |
10. April 9 |
Fourier transforms / Plane acoustic waves Apr 9: Brief review of power spectrum. Introduction to Fourier transforms. Example: Fourier transform of a finite wavetrain. Apr 11: Pre-exam questions. Finish up Fourier transform of finite wavetrain, including calculation of spectral width. Qualitative aspects of plane acoustic waves. Apr 11: Exam #1, 7 pm Apr 12: Characterize an ideal fluid. Derive the wave equation for plane acoustic waves: conservation of mass. Apr 13:Derive the wave equation for plane acoustic waves: Newton's 2nd law and equation of state |
Three problems carried over from last week (Towne, 15-31, 15-32 and Arfken, 3rd ed., 15.3.5). In addition, HRW 18.10, 18.11. | Lab 7: Fourier Synthesis/Speed of waves | EI |
11. April 16 | Plane Acoustic Waves/Boundary Value Problems Apr 16: Wave equation for plane acoustic waves. Speed of sound and equation of state. Bulk modulus and compressibility. Apr 18: Bulk modulus. Simplified form of three equations for acoustic waves. Wave impedance. Apr 19: Wave impedance for waves on a string. Boundary value problems: waves on a semi-infinite string reflected from a wall. Apr 20: Boundary value problems for acoustic waves: hard reflections, pistons, and a start on the transmission-reflection problem. (Crawford, 5) |
Towne 2-17, 2-28, 3-3, 3-5, 3-6, 3-9, 3-10 (deadline extended to Wednesday) | Finish speed of waves | Formal |
12. April 23 | Transmission-Reflection/Energetics of Waves/Interference Apr 23: Transmission and reflection of 1D waves (Towne, 3.1-3.6; French, p. 253-264) Apr 25: Energetics of waves: kinetic and potential energy, power (Towne 4.1,4.10; HRW 17.7; French, p. 237-343); start interference (HRW 36) Apr 26: Interference in general; interference from two coherent source (dipole interference) (HRW 36; Towne 4.7-4.8, 11.1,11.4,11.6-11.7; Feynman II 29; French, p. 280-283; Crawford, 9) Apr 27: Two-source interference (Feynman II 29.5, 30.1; French, p. 280-288; Crawford, 9) |
Extra problem on power spectrum (handed out); HRW Chap 36, #18, 29, 43, 60; Towne, Chap 11, #6, 11 | Lab 9: Measuring light wavelengths with a ruler | Formal |
13. April 30 | N-source interference and diffraction Apr 30: Two-source and partway through N-source interference May 2: N-source interference May 3: Diffraction (Towne, Chap. 12; HRW Chap. 37; Feynman II, Chap. 30) May 4: Finish Diffraction: single (long) slit diffraction, diffraction from a rectangular slit |
HRW Chap. 37, #12, 18, 24, 25, 30, 38, 64 | Lab 10: Two-source interference | EI |
14. May 7 | Electromagnetic waves and polarized light May 7: Begin electromagnetic waves: recall Maxwell's equations in differential and integral forms; application to a pulse: derive relation between the speed of light and the parameters in Maxwell's equation May 9: Course evaluations, general derivation of wave equation, brief introduction to polarization May 10: Quantitative introduction and formal description of polarization; Jones vectors; demonstrations using polarized light (Hilborn) May 11: Jones vectors and matrices in polarization, retarders, birefringence, lots of demos (Hilborn) |
No problem set on EM waves. I'll come up with some practice problems and solutions. | Finish interference | EI |
May 14-18 | Final exam period | Final: Thursday May 17, 2-5 pm, Merrill 131 |